Diet is the most critical computational selection forces in all life forms on Earth.
Voromics is the genomics of diet adaptation, analyses.
18.2 09:30 Diet adaptation and Leopard Genome: carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore genomes.
Kim Soonok, National Institute of Biological Resources; Yeo Joo-Hong, National Institute of Biological Resources;
Cho Yun Sung, UNIST; Bhak Jong*, UNIST; Kim Hak-Min, UNIST
Diet is the most critical computational selection forces in all life forms on Earth. Here we present voromics, genomics of diet adaptation, analyses using 18 high quality mammalian genomes. In doing so, we also introduce a high quality leopard genome assembly constructed by short mate-pair sequences. We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes. We generated a new high-quality leopard genome assembly. In addition to a clear contraction in gene families for starch and sucrose metabolism, the carnivore genomes showed evidence of shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with diet, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for successful hunting and meat consumption. Additionally, an analysis of highly conserved regions at the family level revealed molecular signatures of dietary adaptation in each of Felidae, Hominidae, and Bovidae. However, unlike carnivores, omnivores and herbivores showed fewer shared adaptive signatures, indicating that carnivores are under strong selective pressure related to diet. Finally, felids showed recent reductions in genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, which may be due to the inflexible nature of their strict diet, highlighting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our study provides a large-scale family level comparative genomic analysis to address genomic changes associated with dietary specialization. Our voromic analyses also provide useful resources for diet-related genetic and health research. We also present the concept of variome reference where a reference contains population variome information in the standard reference genome for the future species genomics projects such as Genome 10k.